The PCB’s documents should include the hardware dimensional drawings, schematic, BOM, layout file, component placement file, assembly drawings and instructions, and Gerber file set. User guides also are useful but aren’t required. PCB Design Gerber file set is PCB jargon for the output files of the layout that are used by PCB manufacturers to create the PCB. A complete set of Gerber files includes output files generated from the board layout file:
- Silkscreen top and bottom
- Solder mask top and bottom
- All metal layers
- Paste mask top and bottom
- Component map (X-Y coordinates)
- Assembly drawing top and bottom
- Drill file
- Drill legend
- FAB outline (dimensions, special features)
- Netlist file
The special features included in the FAB outline include but are not limited to notches, cutouts, bevels, back-filled vias-in-pad (used for BGA-type IC packages that have an array of pins under the device), blind/buried vias, surface finish and leveling, hole tolerances, layer count, and more.
Schematics control the project, so accuracy and completeness are critical for success. PCB Design Services include information that is necessary for the proper operation of the circuit. A schematic should include adequate design details, such as pin numbers, names, component values, and ratings.
Embedded within each schematic symbol is the manufacturer part number used to determine price and specifications. The package specification determines the size of the footprint for each component. The first step should be to make sure the exposed copper for each pin is in the proper location and is slightly larger than the component pins (3 to 20 mils) depending on available area and soldering method.
Consider assembly when designing footprints, and follow the manufacturer’s recommended PCB CAD services footprint. Some components come in microscopic packages and do not allow room for extra copper. Even in these cases, a stripe of 2.5 to 3 mils of solder mask should be applied between every pin on the board.
Follow the rule of 10. Small vias have a finished hole size of 10 mils with 10 additional mils of pad ring. Traces should be 10 mils or further from the edge of the board. Trace-to-trace pitch is 10 mils (5-mil air-gap, 5-mil trace width, 1-oz copper). Vias with 40-mil diameter holes or larger should have a pad ring added for reliability. An additional 15 to 25 mils of clearance beyond the design rule should be instated for copper planes on outer layers from plane to pins. This reduces the risk of solder bridging at all solder points.
Component placement is next in the process and determined based on thermal management, function, and electrical noise considerations. PCB Service Bureau first-pass component placement step commences after the outline of component and interconnect position has been assigned. Immediately after the individual components are placed, a placement review should be held and adjustments made to facilitate routing and optimize performance.
Placement and package sizes are often reconsidered and changes are made at this point based on size and cost. Components absorbing greater than 10 mW or conducting more than 10 mA should be considered powerful enough for additional thermal and electrical considerations. Sensitive signals should be shielded from noise sources with planes and be kept impedance-controlled.
Power management components should utilize ground planes or power planes for heat flow. Make high-current connections according to the acceptable voltage drop for the connection. Layer transitions for high current paths should be made with two to four vias at each layer transition.Place multiple vias at layer transitions to increase reliability, reduce resistive and inductive losses, and improve thermal conductivity.